# SQL - Operators In SQL we have various operators to perform operations on data, and an operator can be represented by a special symbol or by a reserved character. Operators always used along with the SQL statements and they come very handy to perform reading and writing operations. The operators in SQL are divided into 3 major categories:

• Arithmetic operators
• Comparison operators
• Logical operators

### Arithmetic Operator

Arithmetic Operators can be applied between two numeric data.

 Arithmetic Operators Description SQL Example Output + (Addition) Used to perform the addition operation between two numeric data. select 2+3; ```+-----+ | 2+3 | +-----+ | 5 | +-----+``` - (Subtraction) Used to perform the subtraction operation select 5-2; ```+-----+ | 5-2 | +-----+ | 3 | +-----+``` * (Multiplication) It multiple the two values select 2*3; ```+-----+ | 2*3 | +-----+ | 6 | +-----+``` / (Division) Divide the left value by the right one select 14/3; ```+--------+ | 14/3 | +--------+ | 4.6667 | +--------+``` % (Modulus) Show the remainder after dividing the left value by the right one select 9%3; ```+------+ | 9%3 | +------+ | 0 | +------+```

### Comparison Operator

Comparison operator compares two values and shows output in 0 and 1, here 0 represent False and 1 represent True.

 Comparison Operators Description SQL Example Output = (Equal To) It used between two variables, and it checks whether both the values match or Not select 3=3; ```+-----+ | 3=3 | +-----+ | 1 | +-----+``` != (not Equal to ) It returns true if the values are not equal, else it returns False select 3!=3; ```+------+ | 3!=3 | +------+ | 0 | +------+``` <> It is similar to not Equal to select 3<>3; ```+------+ | 3<>3 | +------+ | 0 | +------+``` > (Greater than) It checks if the left value is greater than the right one. select 3>4; ```+-----+ | 3>4 | +-----+ | 0 | +-----+``` < (Smaller than) It checks if the left value is smaller than the right one. select 3<4; ```+-----+ | 3<4 | +-----+ | 1 | +-----+``` >= (Greater than Equal to) If the left operand is greater than or equal to the right operand then the result will be true (1) else it will be false(0) select 3>=4; ```+------+ | 3>=4 | +------+ | 0 | +------+``` <=(Less than equal to) If the left operand is Smaller than or equal to the right operand then the result will be true (1) else it will be false(0) select 3<=4; ```+------+ | 3<=4 | +------+ | 1 | +------+```

### Logical Operators

In SQL Logical operators represented by reserved Keywords.

 Operators Description SQL Syntax ALL It is used to compare a value with all the values present in another set. ```SELECT * FROM Students WHERE age > ALL (SELECT age FROM Student WHERE marks >753 ) ;``` AND This logical operator used with WHERE clause and operate between two conditional operators. `SELECT * FROM STUDENTS WHERE age>16 AND age<19;` ANY It shows all the result if any value in the list stands on the conditions. ```SELECT * FROM Students WHERE age > ANY (SELECT age FROM Student WHERE marks >750 ) ;``` BETWEEN This operator is used to search values by providing a range. `SELECT * FROM STUDENTS WHERE age BETWEEN 16 AND 19;` EXISTS It checks whether the data already exists or not, it can also be used to check if the table has been created or not. ```SELECT age FROM Students WHERE EXISTS (SELECT age FROM Student WHERE marks >753 ) ;``` IN This operator checks if a value is present in a list or in a specific data set `SELECT * FROM STUDENTS WHERE age IN (16,17,18,19);` LIKE It is used to compare a value with similar value and often use to compare and search data values. `SELECT Name FROM STUDENTS WHERE Name LIKE 'An%';` NOT It reverses all the operators result. `SELECT Name FROM STUDENTS WHERE Name NOT LIKE 'An%';` OR It shows result if any of the two operators have a true value `SELECT * FROM STUDENTS WHERE age>16 OR age<19;` IS NULL Used to check if the value is Null or not `SELECT * FROM Students WHERE age IS NOT NULL;` UNIQUE It is a Constraints which is used to specify the uniqueness in the table

### Summary

• Operators used to perform specific Operations.
• An Operator can be represented by a special symbol or by a reserved keyword.
• In SQL we have 3 major types of Operators, Logical, Comparison and Arithmetic Operators.
• Specific Operators can only apply on specific Data types.