# JavaScript Math Object

JavaScript provides an Inbuilt Math object to handle mathematic tasks with numbers, and in this tutorial, we will learn how to use some of the Math object properties and methods to perform those tasks.

## The Math object

The Math is a static object which means we do not need to initialize it with the ``` new ``` constructor. Instead, we can directly use Math all properties and method using the Math name, without creating its object.

### Math Properties Constant values

The Math object supports many properties that are used to represent constant values. There are 8 number constant values provided as the Math properties.

Syntax

`Math.property_name`

Example

```<script>
euler = Math.E;   // return Euler's number
pi  = Math.PI;   // retrun pi value
sqrt2   = Math.SQRT2;  // retrun square root of 2
sqrt1_2   = Math.SQRT1_2;   // return square root of 1/2
log2   = Math.LN2; // return logarithm of 2
log10 = Math.LN10;   //retrun logarithm of 10
log2e  = Math.LOG2E;  //retrun base 2 log value of E
log10e  = Math.LOG10E;  // return base 10 log value of E

console.log(euler);
console.log(pi);
console.log(sqrt2);
console.log(sqrt1_2);
console.log(log2);
console.log(log10);
console.log(log2e);
console.log(log10e);
</script>```

Output

```2.718281828459045
3.141592653589793
1.4142135623730951
0.7071067811865476
0.6931471805599453
2.302585092994046
1.4426950408889634
0.4342944819032518```

### Math Methods

Now let's see some of the Math important methods that we often use during JavaScript programming.

### Number to Integer

There are 4 common Math methods that can be used to round up a floating-point or decimal number to an integer number.

• Math.round(number)
• Math.ceil(number)
• Math.floor(number)
• Math.trunc(number)

### Math.round() method

The ``` round(num) ``` method accepts a number ``` num ``` as a parameter and return the nearest integer value of the number ``` num ``` .

Example

```<script>
console.log(Math.round(1.5));  //2
console.log(Math.round(20.3));  //20
console.log(Math.round(3.9));   //4
console.log(Math.round(-3.1));   //-3
console.log(Math.round(3.1));   //3
console.log(Math.round(3));     //3
</script>```

### Math.ceil() method

The ``` ceil(num) ``` method also accepts a number ``` num ``` as a parameter and round up the number to its nearest large Integer number.

Example

```<script>
console.log(Math.ceil(1.5));  //2
console.log(Math.ceil(20.3));  //21
console.log(Math.ceil(3.9));   //4
console.log(Math.ceil(-3.1));   //-3
console.log(Math.ceil(3.1));   //4
console.log(Math.ceil(3.0));     //3
</script>```
```
```

### Math.floor() method

The ``` Math.floor(num) ``` method accepts a number ``` num ``` as a parameter and return a ``` round down ``` integer Number of ``` num ``` .

Example

```<script>
console.log(Math.floor(1.5));  //1
console.log(Math.floor(20.3));  //20
console.log(Math.floor(3.9));   //3
console.log(Math.floor(-3.1));   //-4
console.log(Math.floor(3.1));   //3
console.log(Math.floor(3.0));     //3
</script>```

### Math.trunc() method

The ``` trunc(num.ddd) ``` method remove the decimal part and only return the integer part of ``` num.ddd ``` . We can use this method to convert any decimal number to its integer value without rounding the number.

Example

```<script>
console.log(Math.trunc(1.5));  //1
console.log(Math.trunc(20.3));  //20
console.log(Math.trunc(3.9));   //3
console.log(Math.trunc(-3.1));   //-3
console.log(Math.trunc(3.1));   //3
console.log(Math.trunc(3.0));     //3
</script>```

### Math.sign() method

The ``` sign(num) ``` method is used to check the positive, negative or null sign on the number ``` num ``` . If the value of ``` num ``` is negative the ``` sign() ``` method will return -1 if the value of ``` num ``` is positive the ``` sign() ``` will return 1 for ``` num ``` 0 value it returns 0.

Example

```<script>
console.log(Math.sign(-2));   //-1
console.log(Math.sign(2));    //1
console.log(Math.sign(0));    //0
</script>```

### Math.pow() method

The ``` Math.pow(a,b) ``` is used to find the power of ``` a ``` raise to the ``` b ``` .

Example

```<script>
console.log(Math.pow(3,2));   //9
console.log(Math.pow(4,3));    //64
console.log(Math.pow(5,2));    //25
</script>```

### Math.sqrt() method

The ``` sqrt(num) ``` method will return the square root of number ``` num ``` .

Example

```<script>
console.log(Math.sqrt(64));   //8
console.log(Math.sqrt(50));    //7.0710678118654755
console.log(Math.sqrt(100));    //10
</script>```

### Math.abs() method

The ``` abs(num) ``` method returns the absolute positive value of the specified parameter ``` num ``` .

Example

```<script>
console.log(Math.abs(-64));   //64
console.log(Math.abs(-50));    //50
console.log(Math.abs(-100));    //100
</script>```

### Math.sin() method

The ``` sin(angle_radian) ``` method return the sin value (-1 to 1) of the specified radian angle. By default, the sin() method accepts value in radian but we can also convert the radian value to the degree with the following formula. Angle in radians = Angle in degrees x PI / 180.

Example

```<script>
console.log(Math.sin(90));   //0.8939966636005579

//in degree
console.log(Math.sin(90*Math.PI/180));    //1
</script>```

### Math.cos() method

The ``` cos(angle_radian) ``` method returns the cosine value (-1 to 1) of the specified radian angle. By default, the cos() method accepts value in radian but we can also convert the radian value to the degree with the following formula. Angle in radians = Angle in degrees x PI / 180.

Example

```<script>
console.log(Math.cos(180));   //-0.5984600690578581

//in degree
console.log(Math.cos(180*Math.PI/180));    //-1
</script>```

### Math.min() method

The ``` min(a,b,c, d........n) ``` method accepts a list of number arguments and return the minimum number value.

Example

```<script>
console.log(Math.min(12,34,2,354,35,64,63,632,67));   //2
</script>```

### Math.max() method

The ``` max(a,b,c, d........n) ``` method accepts a list of number arguments and returns the maximum number value.

Example

```<script>
console.log(Math.max(12,34,2,354,35,64,63,632,67));   //632
</script>```

### Math.random() method

The random() method returns a random number between o and 1, where 0 is inclusive and 1 is exclusive.

Example

```<script>
console.log(Math.random());   //0.31252884998756825
console.log(Math.random());   //0.6562255988576251
console.log(Math.random());   //0.8190211236154034
</script>```

If you want to generate a random number between 0 and a specific number then you can multiply the random() method with the specified number, but the specified number will be exclusive.

Example

```<script>
// generate random number between 0 to 10(exclusive)
console.log(Math.random()*10);   //9.143861799011312
console.log(Math.random()*10);   //3.0111929359964784
console.log(Math.random()*10);   //9.495673571174885
</script>```

### Math.log() method

The ``` log(num) ``` method will return the natural logarithmic value of number ``` num ``` . The base for ``` log() ``` method is ``` Math.E ``` .

Example

```<script>
console.log(Math.log(1));   //0
</script>```

### Math.log2() method

The ``` log2(num) ``` method will return the base 2 logarithmic value of number ``` num ``` . The base for ``` log2() ``` method is 2.

Example

```<script>
console.log(Math.log2(64));   //6
</script>```

### Math.log10() method

The ``` log10(num) ``` method will return the base 10 logarithmic value of number ``` num ``` . The base for ``` log10() ``` method is 10.

Example

```<script>
console.log(Math.log10(100));   //2
</script>```

## Summary

• Math is a JavaScript inbuilt object.
• round() method round the number to its nearest integer value.
• The ceil() method round up the number to its nearest integer value.
• The floor() method round down the number to its nearest integer value.
• The trunc() method removes the decimal point and only returns the integer value.
• The pow(x,y) method returns the power of x to the y.
• The sqrt() method returns the square root of the number.
• The abs() method returns the positive value of the number.
• The sin() and cos() method returns the sin and cosine value of the specified radian.
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