Top 50 Software Engineering Interview Questions and Answers

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Top 50 Software Engineering Interview Questions and Answers

Sameeksha Medewar
Last updated on November 12, 2022

    Software engineering is one of the most promising and go-to fields in the IT industry and provides a plethora of rewarding career opportunities. The heavy reliance of humans on software products has made this industry ever-growing.

    It is the field that has made it possible to convert anything you visualize into a real-world application or solution. And software engineers are responsible for this. They collect user requirements, analyze them, and develop software solutions that meet those needs through knowledge of programming languages and software engineering principles.

    Becoming a software engineer can be one of the best job routes one may take if they have an interest in technology, strong problem-solving and analytical skills, and a strategic mind. Also, it is a rewarding and lucrative career path. But becoming one may require you to gain mastery in a vast set of skills.

    Check out: Essential Software Engineer Skills

    After you develop the essential skills, you can then apply for entry-level job positions. To get a position as a software engineer in renowned companies, you first need to appear for interviews. To help you ace your upcoming interviews for the software engineer position, we have curated this article for you.

    In this article, we have listed some frequently asked software engineering interview questions. This list will surely help you ace your next software engineer interview.

    So, let us get started!

    What is Software Engineering?

    It is a structured and systematic approach to software development . It entails applying software engineering principles in the designing, development, testing, and maintenance phases of software applications. This engineering discipline involves the use of scientific methods and procedures and a well-established set of practices and principles that result in high-quality software products.

    In short, we can say that software engineering is a computer science field that involves applying software engineering principles throughout the software development life cycle ( SDLC ).

    Top 50 Software Engineering Interview Questions and Answers for Freshers and Experienced [2022]

    The following list of interview questions on software engineering is ideal for freshers as well as experienced. We have divided the list into three sections: basic, intermediate, and advanced. Based on your level of experience, you can refer to these sections.

    Let us explore below!

    Basic Software Engineering Interview Questions for Freshers

    1. What is software, and what are its characteristics?

    A software is a collection of multiple computer programs, data, or instructions that direct computer systems to perform a specific task. To put it simply, a software instructions computer systems how to function and what to do. It serves as a generic term for scripts, computer programs, and applications that run on various devices, including desktops, laptops, tablets, and smartphones.

    The following are some remarkable characteristics of software:

    • Functionality: Functionality refers to things that software is expected to do. For instance, a calculator’s functionality is to carry out mathematical operations.
    • Reliability: It is the ability of software to perform its intended functions under critical conditions for a specific period of time.
    • Usability: It is the characteristic that refers to users’ experiences while using the software product. It is a metric that determines the satisfaction of users.
    • Efficiency: This determines the ability of software to use the provided resources in the best possible way.
    • Maintainability: Maintainability of software means the ease it provides to repair and improve the software code.
    • Portability: It is the ability of software to transfer from one environment to another.

    2. What are the different types of software?

    There are two major categories of software, as follows:

    System Software

    They provide the fundamental functionality to users and other software applications installed on the computer system. They directly operate with the computer hardware. To put it simply, they manage the computer system’s internal functioning and control hardware devices, such as printers, keyboards, storage devices, etc.

    Common examples include operating systems, language processors, and drivers.

    Application Software

    They are intended to perform functions that are much more than basic operations. They perform specific tasks and fulfill end users’ requirements.

    Common examples include word processors, spreadsheets, database management systems, etc.

    3. What do you understand about software re-engineering?

    It is the process of software development carried out to enhance the maintainability of software products. It entails determining and modifying the software product to convert it into a new form. In doing so, it employs a set of techniques, including reverse engineering, reconstructing, and forward engineering. It results in a positive impact on the product’s speed of delivery, cost, and quality.

    In short, re-engineering is all about modifying the software product to make it more effective and efficient.

    4. What is SDLC?

    SDLC is an acronym for Software Development Life Cycle. Also referred to as the software development process, SDLC is a structured process of designing, developing, and maintaining high-quality and defect-free software products. It breaks the entire development process, from concept initiation to deployment and maintenance, into different phases.

    In other words, we can define SDLC as a framework that divides the entire development process into phases and defines a set of tasks to be performed at each phase.

    5. Explain the software development process.

    The following are the different phases involved in the software development process:

    • Requirements Collection and Analysis: This phase entails gathering all the requirements from the clients or end users for the software product that needs to be developed. After gathering, they analyze the requirements to determine whether they are achievable. Finally, they create the Software Requirements Specification (SRS), which needs to be reviewed by customers or clients.
    • Software Design: This phase takes SRS as input and provides an architecture of the software product, and describes the features and function of each and every component.
    • Coding or Implementation: It is the longest phase. They start implementing the product based on the design they made in the previous phase. They convert the design into the source code, i.e., they implement each and every component of the product.
    • Testing : Once the coding phase finishes, all the developed components are tested individually and also after integration to check their correctness. The entire software product undergoes testing to verify whether it functions as intended and is free from bugs and defects.
    • Deployment: Next comes the deployment of the tested software product. The product goes into the production stage and becomes live for end users.
    • Maintenance: This phase comes after end users start using the product and encounter any issues. In this case, the development team needs to fix those errors and maintain the system regularly.

    6. What are the different SDLC models?

    The following are the different SDLC models:

    7. What is a framework?

    A framework acts as the foundation for developing applications. It comes with various libraries and tools that eliminate the need for developers to write everything from scratch. It provides the basic structure for creating applications so that you can concentrate on developing the core logic of your application. In short, it forms the basis for the entire software development process.

    8. How do a computer program and computer software differ?

    A computer program is a set of instructions written in a programming language to perform a specific task, whereas computer software is a collection of multiple computer programs.

    The following table explains the differences between a computer program and computer software:

    Parameters

    Computer Program

    Computer Software

    Definition

    It is a set of instructions scripted in a programming language to perform specific tasks.

    It is a collection of computer programs.

    Types

    There is no further categorization of a computer program.

    There are two basic types of computer software: System software and Application software.

    User Interface

    A computer program has no UI.

    It has a well-designed user interface.

    Features and Functionalities

    It has fewer features and functionalities.

    Computer software has more features and functionalities.

    Development Approach

    There is no specific approach to creating a computer program. It is unplanned and unorganized.

    There is a well-designed and planned method to develop computer software.

    9. What do you mean by debugging?

    Debugging is a process of detecting errors in the source code, isolating them, and correcting them in order to make the source code defect free. During debugging, testers will look for syntax errors, errors in logic, typos, and implementation errors. We can carry out debugging either manually or using automated software tools.

    10. Can you explain coupling and cohesion?

    Cohesion: It is the concept of intra-module, i.e., the relationship within a module. High cohesion is always better.

    Coupling: It is the concept of inter-module, i.e., the relationship between different modules. Low coupling is always better.

    The following table describes the differences between cohesion and coupling:

    Cohesion

    Coupling

    It represents the relationship within a module.

    It represents the relationship between different modules.

    High cohesion is good for software products.

    Low coupling is good for software products.

    Cohesion indicates the high functional strength of modules.

    Coupling indicates the independence of modules.

    11. Explain software configuration management (SCM).

    Software Configuration Management (SCM) is the process of managing, organizing, and controlling changes in the source code, requirements, and other elements of SDLC. It emphasizes identifying the changes, monitoring and controlling them, making sure that the implementation of the changes is proper, and reporting for the changes made. The primary objective of SCM is to minimize errors and maximize the efficiency and productivity of the development process.

    As we know that software development takes place in a team of several members, where each member works on the source code. So, in order to determine the changes made to the source code by different members, SCM plays a very important role.

    12. What do you know about verification and validation?

    Verification and validation play a vital role in ensuring the quality of software products.

    Verification: It is the process of assessing applications to verify that they meet their goals and are free from defects and bugs. It is all about focusing on whether we are developing the product correctly or not.

    Validation: It is the process of making sure that the development application is upto the mark and is fit for use. It primarily focuses on whether we are developing the right product or not.

    Check out: Verification and Validation in Software Testing

    13. What do you know about black box testing?

    Black box testing is a type of software testing that involves validating a software product’s functionality without knowing its implementation details, code structure, and internal working. The specification of requirements by end users or clients serves as the source code black-box testing.

    In this type of testing, a tester chooses one feature of the software product, provides input to it, and receives the output. If the output is as expected, that feature passes testing; otherwise, it fails. Once the testing of all features is done, the testing team reports the failed functions to the development team for correction.

    For more details, check out our article: Black Box Testing

    14. Can you explain white box testing?

    In contrast to black box testing, a tester in white box testing has knowledge of the internal structures of the software product, such as code structure, internal design, data structures used, and the working. Rather than only focusing on the functionality of the product, this type of testing checks the product’s infrastructure and internal coding.

    In a nutshell, white box testing is all about testing the internal structure and working of applications. As the working details of the software product are known to testers, white-box testing is referred to as clear-box testing, glass-box testing, and transparent testing.

    To learn more, check out: White Box Testing

    15. Tell about grey box testing.

    Grey box testing stands in between the white box and the black box testing. In this type of testing, testers have partial knowledge of the application under test. This means that they have the right to refer to the documentation of data structures and algorithms used for creating the application but have limited knowledge of the internal working.

    Generally, grey box testing is useful in identifying context-specific errors belonging to web systems. As testers have partial knowledge of the system they are testing, grey box testing is also known as translucent testing.

    Check out: Grey Box Testing

    16. What do you know about quality assurance and quality control?

    Quality Assurance (QA): It concentrates on assuring that the software product being developed will be of high and requested quality.

    Quality Control (QC): It primarily concentrates on ensuring that the processes, methods, and techniques used in developing the application are correct.

    Here are the detailed differences between quality assurance and quality control:

    Quality Assurance (QA)

    Quality Control (QC)

    It provides assurance about the quality of applications.

    It is concerned with fulfilling the quality of applications.

    QA manages the quality.

    QC verifies the quality.

    It does not require the execution of the source code.

    It requires the execution of the source code.

    QA is process-oriented and a preventive tool.

    QC is product-oriented and a corrective tool.

    It is associated with the entire SDLC.

    It is associated with only STLC.

    Verification is an example of QA.

    Validation is an example of QC.

    To learn about more differences, check out: Quality Assurance vs Quality Control

    17. Explain reverse engineering.

    Reverse engineering is the process that deals with recovering the requirement specifications, design, and functions of an application by analyzing its source code. In short, it is the process of dismantling the application in progress to understand its working better. The primary purpose of reverse engineering is to make the maintenance process easier by understanding the application in a better way and producing the necessary documents for a legacy application.

    Here are some primary goals of reverse engineering:

    • Recover lost information
    • Facilitate reuse
    • Identify side effects
    • Cope with complexity

    18. What is SRS?

    SRS is an acronym for Software Requirements Specification. It is a comprehensive document that contains a list of requirements, along with descriptions, that the software product needs to meet. The requirements can either be functional or non-functional.

    In other words, SRS is a formal document that serves as a basis for all software engineering activities. It acts as a representation of a software product where customers can review whether the product is being developed as per the requirements.

    19. Can you tell about the baseline in software development?

    The baseline in software development is a milestone and reference point that is marked when one or more software deliverables are delivered successfully. The primary objective of the baseline is to reduce and regulate project vulnerabilities and weaknesses that can damage the product easily, leading to uncontrollable changes.

    20. What are CASE tools?

    CASE stands for Computer-Aided Software Engineering. It is a suite of tools or software application programs for automating various SDLC activities. A few extensively used CASE tools include:

    • Software Design Tool
    • Requirement Analysis Tool
    • Test Case Generation Tool
    • Reverse Engineering Tool
    • Structure Analysis Tool
    • Code Generation Tool
    • Document Production Tool

    The primary aim of CASE tools is to ensure the delivery of high-quality software products.

    Intermediate Software Engineering Interview Questions

    21. What is a feasibility study?

    A feasibility study implies the assessment of the practicality or adequacy of a proposed plan or project. In other words, it refers to analyzing all the critical aspects of a proposed project or plan to determine its likelihood of success. It measures the software product under development in terms of its usefulness and profitability to the organization or business from a practical perspective.

    The software product undergoes a feasibility study for a variety of reasons. One major reason is to make sure that the product is accurate regarding implementation and development and provides value to the business.

    The feasibility study primarily focuses on the following aspects:

    • Technical feasibility
    • Economical feasibility
    • Legal feasibility
    • Operational feasibility
    • Schedule feasibility

    22. How do alpha testing and beta testing differ?

    Alpha and beta testing are the types of user acceptance testing.

    Alpha Testing: This type of testing uncovers defects or bugs in a software product before releasing it to real users. A group of internal employees within an organization test the product for its correctness.

    Beta Testing: In contrast to alpha testing, beta testing is performed by real users and too in a real environment.

    The following table highlights the differences between alpha testing and beta testing:

    Alpha Testing

    Beta Testing

    A team of internal employees within an organization perform alpha testing on the product before it becomes live to end users.

    A small group of real users tests the product to uncover defects and errors.

    It uses both white box and black box testing techniques.

    It uses only the black box testing technique.

    Alpha testing does not assess the product for its reliability, robustness, and security.

    Beta testing validates the product for security, robustness, and reliability.

    It requires a particular environment for testing the product.

    There is no need for any environment for testing the product.

    Alpha testing occurs before beta testing.

    Beta testing takes place after alpha testing.

    It has a long execution cycle, as it depends on the number of bugs identified.

    It has a short execution cycle generally of a few weeks.

    To learn more about the differences, check out: Alpha Testing vs Beta Testing

    23. What do you understand about the waterfall model?

    Also referred to as the linear sequential life cycle mode, the waterfall model is the oldest and most traditional SDLC approach. It entails executing each phase of SDLC in a sequential manner. This means that it starts the next phase only after the execution of the current phase. There is no overlap between phases.

    In short, the waterfall model executes SDLC phases one by one in a linear sequential flow. As the flow moves downwards from one phase to another, it is referred to as the waterfall model. There is no going back to the previous phases.

    The following are some scenarios where the waterfall model is a perfect fit:

    • There are clear and unambiguous requirements.
    • Well-documented and unchangeable requirements.
    • Stable product definition.
    • Well-understood technology and not dynamic.
    • A lot of resources with expertise.
    • Small project.

    24. What are the advantages and disadvantages of the waterfall model?

    Advantages:

    • The waterfall model is simple and easy to comprehend.
    • As this model is highly rigid, it is easy to manage. In addition, every phase has its own deliverables and review process.
    • There are clearly defined phases.
    • Each phase is executed at a time.
    • The process and results are well documented.

    Disadvantages:

    • Customers receive the working model only at the end of SDLC.
    • There is a great chance of risk due to uncertainty.
    • It is not ideal for large and complex projects.
    • There is no way to measure the progress of the product between phases.
    • There is no scope for changing requirements.
    • It is not suitable for projects having changing requirements.

    25. What is the incremental model, and what are its benefits?

    Unlike the traditional waterfall model, the incremental model provides the working software to the customers in the early stages of development. This model requires dividing the entire set of requirements into several standalone modules.

    Every standalone module goes through different phases of SDLC. The release of subsequent modules adds functionality to the previous release. This entire process continues until the final product is developed. Hence, it is also known as the successive version model.

    The incremental model is ideal to use when:

    • The project is lengthy and complex.
    • Customers demand the release of the product in the early stages.
    • The development team is not very skilled and trained.
    • You need to implement the high-priority requirements first.

    Benefits

    The following are the worth mentioning advantages of the incremental model:

    • Ensures the fast development of applications.
    • Customers can provide feedback at each increment.
    • It is easy to identify and manage the risks at the module level.
    • The clients have a clear idea of the project.

    26. Explain software prototyping and POC.

    Software Prototyping: A software prototype refers to a working model with basic or limited functionality. In other words, it is a simulation of the actual product, i.e., how it will look, work, and feel. It is important to note that the logic used in a software prototype may or may or be used in the final product. The primary purpose of a prototype is to receive feedback from the clients and for user testing.

    The process of initialing an idea, designing it, and converting it into a workable prototype that simulates the final product is called software prototyping.

    POC: It is an acronym for Proof of Concept. Sometimes referred to as the Proof of Principle, POC is a method organizations use to determine whether an idea can turn into reality. In simple terms, it is a method to verify that an idea will execute as envisioned. It takes place before the commencement of SDLC and determines the viability of an idea from the technology standpoint.

    27. What is a spiral model, and what are its drawbacks?

    In SDLC, a spiral model is an approach consisting of multiple loops, where each loop is referred to as the phase of the development process. It is an approach to handling risks that blends the iterative and waterfall models together.

    The diagrammatic representation of this model resembles a spiral with multiple loops. More importantly, the number of loops may vary from project to project. It is the responsibility of the project manager to decide the number of loops based on the project risks.

    Here, the development team has a limited set of requirements at the onset of the development process. However, the requirements get added as the team progresses further. It is possible to add new functionality to the project under development until it goes into production.

    The following are some significant drawbacks of the spiral model:

    • The spiral model is more complicated and intricate than other SDLC models.
    • It is not ideal for small projects because of the increased cost.
    • To perform a risk analysis, this model requires a highly skilled person.
    • It is pretty challenging to estimate the time to delivery.
    • There is a possibility that the spirals can grow indefinitely.

    28. Can you explain the COCOMO model?

    COCOMO stands for Constructive Cost Model. It is an estimation model that predicts the required effort and schedule of the software product based on its size. A study of 63 projects led to the development of the COCOMO model by Barry Boehm in 1981.

    Being a regression model, COCOMO is based on LOC, which means the number of lines of code. It is a procedural model that usually determines various parameters associated with the project, including the size, cost, effort, time, and quality.

    The two primary parameters that determine the quality of software products are the output of the COCOMO model. These parameters are as follows:

    • Effort: This parameter determines the amount of labor or work required to finish the development of a specific product. The effort is measured in person-months units.
    • Schedule: This parameter determines the amount of time required to finish a job that is proportional to the effort made. Time, such as weeks and months, is the unit of measure for schedule.

    29. What is agile methodology?

    An agile methodology is a popular and widespread SDLC model that emphasizes continuous delivery of the software product developed in iterations. It combines both iterative and incremental models and focuses on maximum customer satisfaction by delivering high-quality products to customers rapidly.

    Unlike the conventional waterfall model, the agile methodology works by breaking the product into small increments. Each increment goes through all the phases of SDLC. In addition, customers can provide feedback for each increment, and the development team works on that feedback and creates a newly enhanced increment. This model involves constant communication between the development team ad stakeholders and a scope for continuous improvement.

    The following are some remarkable benefits of the agile methodology:

    • Rapid and continuous delivery of the product in increments ensures maximum customer satisfaction.
    • Constant collaboration between developers, testers, and customers/stakeholders.
    • There is a scope for changing requirements.
    • It ensures faster time to delivery.
    • The agile model gives more importance to good design and technical excellence.

    30. What are software metrics?

    A software metric refers to the characteristics of a software product that are countable or measurable. Software metrics are important for various purposes, including measuring the performance of the product, determining its productivity, planning work items, and many others.

    Some common examples of software metrics include load testing , stress testing , lines of code, code complexity, and average failure rate. There are three types of software metrics as follows:

    • Product Metrics: The primary function of product metrics is to evaluate the product’s state, undercover prospective problem areas, and trace risks.
    • Process Metrics: This type of metric focuses on improving the long-term process of a team or organization.
    • Project Metrics: Project metrics describe the project process and its characteristics, such as productivity, the number of developers, staffing patterns, and cost and schedule.

    31. List out the characteristics of software metrics.

    The following are the characteristics of software metrics:

    • Quantitative: It is possible to express metrics in numerical values.
    • Applicability: Metrics are applicable in the initial phases of the development process.
    • Understandable: The computation of metrics is easily understandable.
    • Economical: The computation of metrics is economical.
    • Repeatable: The value of a metric is the same even if it is measured repeatedly.
    • Language Independent: Metrics do not depend on any programming language .

    32. What is concurrency?

    Concurrency refers to the combination of techniques and approaches that enable a product to carry out multiple tasks at the same time. To put it simply, it implies the execution of multiple sequences of instructions simultaneously.

    It is analogous to the concept of concurrency in operating systems, where several process threads execute concurrently. To achieve concurrency in software products, we must opt for Java or C++ because these programming languages support the concept of threads.

    33. What do you know about the data flow diagram?

    A data flow diagram (DFD) is a pictorial representation of the flow of information within a system. It is one of the easiest ways to understand the operations of the system to uncover potential errors, develop better processes, and improve efficiency. In addition, it describes things that are pretty challenging to describe in words.

    DFD makes use of standardized symbols, like rectangles, circles, arrows, and short-text labels. These symbols describe the flow of the system’s information, data inputs, data outputs, data storage points, and several sub-processes. DFDs can range from more simple that are achievable through hands to more complex, including multiple levels to dig deeper into how data is managed.

    34. Can you explain the concept of modularization?

    Modularization is the concept of breaking down the functionality of a program or product into smaller, independent, and interchangeable modules. Each module contains everything it needs to execute. When we divide a product into modules, it becomes easier to work with small modules rather than the whole product.

    In addition, modularization allows us to add a separate and independent module to the product without affecting other existing modules and being affected by their complexities. When we develop applications using the concept of modularization, they become easy to develop and maintain.

    35. What are functional and non-functional requirements?

    Requirements in software engineering are simply features that end users wish to have in the software product.

    Functional Requirements: These are the functionalities end users demand to have in a particular product. The development team needs to incorporate all the functional requirements in the product as a part of a contract.

    Non-Functional Requirements: These are primarily the quality constraints the product must comply with, as per the project contract. They are called non-behavorial requirements.

    36. How do functional and non-functional requirements differ?

    The following table highlights the differences between the functional and non-functional requirements:

    Functional Requirements

    Non-Functional Requirements

    A functional requirement refers to a system or its component.

    A non-functional requirement refers to the quality attribute of a system.

    It describes what the software system should do.

    It describes how the software system should meet the functional requirements.

    End users specify functional requirements.

    Technical professionals, such as developers, technical leaders, and architects, define non-functional requirements.

    Functional requirements are mandatory.

    Non-functional requirements are not mandatory.

    They assist in verifying the functionality of the system.

    They aid in evaluating the performance of the system.

    Advanced Software Engineering Interview Questions for Experienced

    37. What is the RAD model?

    RAD is an acronym for Rapid Application Development. It is an SDLC approach that focuses less on planning and more on the given development tasks. It is based on prototyping with less or no specific planning. The primary goal of the RAD model is to deliver high-notch software products rapidly.

    In contrast to the waterfall model, which gives priority to planning and specification, the RAD model focuses on implementing continuously evolving requirements.

    The primary idea of RAD is that it develops functional modules of the product as prototypes and integrates them to deliver a complete, fully-functional product. It becomes easy to incorporate changes at any stage of the development process, as this model does not involve any preplanning.

    38. What are the advantages and disadvantages of the RAD model?

    Advantages:

    • It is a flexible model that is easily adaptable to changes.
    • The RAD model is ideal when you wish to reduce the overall project risk.
    • It emphasizes the reusability of features.
    • The product’s time to market is very less.
    • The feature of reusability reduces manual coding.
    • As RAD is based on prototyping, there are chances that the product will have fewer defects.
    • Each phase in RAD delivers the highest priority functionality to customers.

    Disadvantages:

    • There is a need for experienced and highly skilled engineers.
    • It is not possible to develop all kinds of applications using RAD.
    • The RAD model is not suitable for small and simple projects.
    • It is challenging to track the progress and problems encountered because there is no detailed documentation.
    • It is advisable not to use this model when there is a high technical risk.

    39. Can you explain risk management?

    Risk is generally a potential problem. In other words, it is an event that may compromise the success of the software development project. Risk management is the process of detecting, addressing, and prioritizing risks with the aim of reducing, monitoring, and controlling the probability of unwanted and unnecessary events. It includes the following tasks:

    • Identifying risks and their causes.
    • Classifying and prioritizing risks.
    • Creating a plan that associates each risk with mitigation.
    • Monitoring risk triggers.
    • Implementing the risk mitigation action.
    • Communicating risks status among stakeholders.

    40. Do you know about regression testing? If so, explain.

    Regression testing is a sort of software testing which ensures that any recent change in the source code of an application or the addition of a new feature does not affect the existing functionalities. In technical terms, this type of testing refers to selecting full or partial test cases that are already executed for re-execution to make sure that existing functionalities of the application work correctly.

    The primary aim of regression testing is to ensure that the old code works well despite the addition of new code. We need regression testing whenever there is a change in code or an addition of a new feature.

    To learn more about it, check out: What is Regression Testing?

    41. Can you explain CMM?

    CMM is an acronym for Capability Maturity Model. It is not a model. Instead, it is a framework that organizations use to analyze the techniques and approaches they use in the software development process. It provides them with guidelines to improve the maturity of the approach used for developing software products.

    In addition, CMM provides a strategy to improve the process of software development. Organizations follow this strategy by moving through five different levels. These levels are as follows:

    • Initial
    • Repeatable
    • Defined
    • Managed
    • Optimizing

    42. What are the types of software maintenance?

    The process of making changes to a software product after it is delivered to end users is called software maintenance. Its primary purpose is to fix issues or defects found after the delivery of the product.

    There are four types of software maintenance, as follows:

    • Corrective maintenance: It is essential in case of rectifying an error found while the product is in use or enhancing the product’s performance.
    • Adaptive maintenance: This type of maintenance entails modifications to the product when the end users want to use it on a new platform or operating system or want the product to interface with new hardware and software.
    • Perfective maintenance: When the product needs to support new features or change the functionality, perfective maintenance is required.
    • Preventive maintenance: Any updations or modifications to the product to prevent future problems is preventive maintenance. It takes care of the issues that may turn into big ones in the future and seem trivial at that moment.

    43. How will you measure the complexity of software?

    The following are different methods to measure the complexity of software:

    • Line of codes
    • Cyclomatic complexity
    • Class coupling
    • Depth of inheritance

    44. Explain the use case diagram.

    A use case diagram is a pictorial representation of the summarized details of the system and the users associated with that system. It describes the interactions among different elements of the system graphically. It represents the dynamic behavior of the system.

    The following are the purposes of a use case diagram:

    • Gathering the system’s requirements.
    • Providing the external view of the system.
    • Identifying the internal and external factors that influence the system.
    • Showing the interaction between actors.

    45. How do you differentiate between risk and uncertainty?

    The following table describes the differences between risk and uncertainty:

    Risk

    Uncertainty

    Risk refers to the output of an action that is taken or not taken, which may result in either loss or gain.

    Uncertainty refers to a situation whose future is not known or uncertain.

    It is measurable.

    It is not measurable.

    Risk is computable.

    Uncertainty is not computable.

    You can avoid risks by outlining plans beforehand.

    It is not possible to create any plan to avoid uncertainty.

    It is possible to convert risk into certainty.

    You cannot convert uncertainty into certainty.

    46. How do a bug and error differ?

    Error: An error occurs when there is a discrepancy between the actual and the expected outcomes. It can be temporary.

    Bug: A bug is any unexpected flaw or imperfection that can be permanent.

    Check out: Difference between Bug, Defect, Error, Fault, Failure

    47. What is the formula to calculate the Cyclomatic complexity of a program?

    The formula to calculate the Cyclomatic complexity of a program is as follows:

    c = e - n+2p

    where,

    e = number of edges

    n = number of vertices

    p = predicates

    48. Can you explain the System Context Design (SCD)?

    The System Context Design (SCD), also known as level 0 DFD, is the highest abstraction level of the data flow diagram (DFD). It consists of a single process that represents the entire system. It establishes the context and boundaries of the system that needs to be modeled.

    The primary purpose of SCD is to identify the flow of data between the system and the external entities. It helps in considering all the external factors and events while developing the set of system requirements or constraints.

    Generally, the requirements document contains the system context design. It is crafted in a normal and easily understandable language because all project stakeholders need to understand it.

    49. Name some software analysis and design tools.

    The following are some popularly used software analysis and design tools:

    • Data Flow Diagrams
    • Structured Charts
    • Structured English
    • Data Dictionary
    • Hierarchical Input Process Output diagrams
    • Entity Relationship Diagrams and Decision tables

    50. Define a software development effort estimation for organic software using the fundamental COCOMO paradigm.

    We define the estimation of a software development effort for organic software using COCOMO mode as follows:

    Organic: Effort = 2.4(KLOC) 1.05 PM

    Conclusion

    Being a software engineer is obviously not an easy task. It requires you to develop numerous skills. In addition, it requires strong dedication, determination, and, of course, hard work. Firstly, understand what skills you need to develop. Accordingly, choose the right resources and start developing skills one by one. Keep practicing your skills to gain mastery.

    The above list of software engineering interview questions will surely help you in your interviews. Simply go through it to recollect concepts a day or two before your interview.

    If we are missing out on other frequently asked software engineering interview questions, share them with us via the comments section.

    Good Luck!

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