It’s 2019 and yet Java has the largest developer community across the world, and it always considered as the most useful programming language.  There are more than 9 million Java Developers who are contributing their skills and knowledge to its further development. The java Frameworks have given the race to reach Java to height, with its framework developer does not need to create a complete web and mobile application from scratch.

What are Web Frameworks?

There are lots of definitions available on the internet that what is framework but most of those are confusing and have jargon of technical terms, which could be difficult for a beginner to understand that what actually a Framework is. In simple term web frameworks are defined as a collection of libraries (predefined code) and API (Application Program Interfaces) which calls your code and perform the task. Frameworks are used to create code and web Applications.

Java Frameworks

Java has its own frameworks and by Java Frameworks means they only accept Java code and syntax. Frameworks are used to create web and mobile application, so do Java Frameworks and most of its frameworks used at back-end web development. Here in this article, we will discuss some of the most popular Java Frameworks.

JSF – Java Server Faces

JSF – Java Server Faces

It is an Open source Java Web Application framework released back in 2004 and probably one of the oldest Java frameworks. JSF is developed by Oracle (the owner of Java), and it is designed to build an interface between the user and web application (Java Based).

JSF is based on MVC (Model-View-Controller) architecture and has component-based architecture. It is released a long time ago so by now it has a large and active community. It is considered as the powerful Java Framework but its execution speed is not that much fast and it uses complex java syntax which makes it difficult to learn, that’s why beginners always have a second thought whether to learn this framework or not.

JSF- Java Server Faces Features

  • It is developed and maintained by Oracle
  • Reusable User Interface components
  • Standards-based UI development
  • Well organized and very helpful documentation
  • Rich libraries
  • Connect user component to data source
  • Event Handlers on the server side.

JSF- Java Server Faces Cons

  • High learning curve
  • Use complex syntax
  • Slow

Spring Framework

Spring Framework

Spring is one of the most popular and powerful Java EE application frameworks. It is developed by a software company, Pivotal software and first released on 1st October 2002 and by then this framework has gained much popularity. Yet when it comes to developed Enterprise application with high-security concern spring, fall on the top of the list.

It has a high learning curve, professions use this framework for their project for a naïve Java developer it would not be a good choice to opt. Spring also follow MVC architecture. It has great documentation and a prospering and active community out there.

Spring Features

  • High security
  • Relational Database support
  • It can connect with everything
  • Rich libraries and API
  • Supports processing data in real-time streams and batch

Spark

Spark

It is a micro framework by Apache that can work with either Java or Kotlin. As it is a micro framework which makes is faster and limited features of this framework are designed to perform specific tasks. It has a with a low learning curve which makes it an Ideal framework for a beginner Java developer.

It mostly concerns with the back-end development, though it does not follow the MVC architecture yet you can structure your program as you wish. Terrific speed and lightweight are its key features.

Companies using Spark:

  • com
  • Apache
  • Asana
  • Playlyfe
  • Arquillian
  • GOSU

Spark Features

  • Fast development
  • Low learning curve
  • Light weighted
  • It can also work with Groovy or Kotlin

Struts

It is an open source Java EE (Enterprise Edition) web framework which is developed and maintained by Apache Software Foundation. Apache has released two versions of struts, 1st in 2000 and 2nd in 2006 both of them works on cross-platform (Java Virtual Machine). Like other Java Framework, it is used to create Java-based web application and its based on MVC architecture.

Struts have its own syntax to follow which create a problem for a java developer to understand and cope with struts but its fast development makes it worth. With its complex syntax and methodology, its not an ideal framework for a beginner java Developer. With struts, you can plug-in many third parties’ packages and front-end interface.

Struts Features

  • Open Source
  • Third party plugin
  • Fast development
  • Build in Testing tools

Struts Cons

  • Complex methodology
  • High learning curve 

Hibernate

Hibernate is not actually a framework, it’s an ORM (Object-Relational-Mapping) used by the Java. Hibernate is used to provide a framework which acts as a bridge between Relational Database and Java. It is well known for its powerful data accessing feature.

The data handling process of Relational databases is different from an object-oriented programming language and when we want Java which is an Object-oriented programming language to access data from the relational database where data store in a tabular form then there some conflict occurs in order to overcome this conflict Hibernate ORM is used. With the increasing demand of data-manipulation more and more Java developers are choosing Hibernate for their project.

Hibernate Features

  • Open source
  • Powerful ORM
  • Fast development

Hibernate cons

  • Data security is not high

GWT – Google Web Toolkit

GWT is an open source tool which is developed by Google itself. It is designed to develop front-end web application using Java. It comes with well-organized documentation that helps developers to understand it better.

It is a very simple tool, as the specialty of Google which makes everything simple to use. Though it is designed to create a client-side application, now it is able to create both a client as well as a server-side web application. Its simplicity does not compromise with the quality of application build on it, its ability to create complex applications.

GWT Features

  • It is easy to use this toolkit
  • Easy learning curve
  • Well managed documentation
  • Used for Full stack development

Cons:

  • Compiling process is very slow

Play Framework

It is a powerful, open source and lightweight Java Framework developed by light bend back in 2007. It is used to create web applications for all platform. It is written on Scala so other than Java Scala developer can also use Play to create web applications.

Play is built by using Akka toolkit which makes it run on Java Virtual Machine. It also follows the MVC design pattern and comes with inbuilt features like code reloading, convention over configuration and lots more.

Play Features

  • Error Messages in browser
  • Convention over configuration
  • Improve productivity
  • Code reloading

Vert..X

It is a polyglot event-driven application framework that runs on Java Virtual Machine. It supports many languages such as Java, JavaScript, Groovy, Ruby, Scala, and Kotlin. It is developed by Eclipse foundation one of the leading foundations of JAVA IDE. ‘X’ in vert.X represent the multi-language support of this framework.

It is a very lightweight framework and its file size is about 650 kb and it follows a modular architecture and this modular approach helps to divide the framework program into small modules.

Vert.X Pros

  • Easy installation
  • Multi-languages
  • Modular format
  • Rich library

Wicket

It is also known as Apache Wicket and it is a component-based web application framework which accepts Java. It is developed and maintained by Apache Software Foundation and its 1st version released in June 2005.

It follows the MVC design pattern and uses plain XHTML for templating. It is one of the lightweight web applications released by Apache to develop simple web applications. It is free to use, a server-side framework written in Java.

Wicket Pros

  • Support HTML
  • Built-in testing tools
  • Great documentation
  • Use to create simple applications

Wicket Cons

  • High learning curve

Vaadin

Vaadin is an open source web development platform developed by Vaadin.ltd and licensed by Apache software foundation. It is a kind of Framework which is used to developed web application using C++ and Java.

Vaadin is only used for server-side web application and it provides a rich interface between the server side and the user.

Vaadin Features

  • Plug in supports
  • Server-side programming
  • Rich web interface
  • Can plugin with GWT and Ajax
  • Supported by Apache.

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